Exposure to high lethal dose of ionizing radiation results in acute radiation syndrome with deleterious systemic effects to different organs. A primary target is the highly sensitive bone marrow and the hematopoietic system
Skin that is exposed to radiation has an impaired ability to heal wounds. This is especially true for whole body irradiation, where even moderate non-lethal doses can result in wound healing deficits.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to potentially undergo chondrogenic differentiation. We propose a new matrix for stem cell-based chondrogenesis using dense fibrin microbeads (FMBs) combined with grounded dehydrothermally crosslinked collagen sponges (micronized collagen).
The ability to generate patient-specific human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offers a new paradigm for modelling human disease and for individualizing drug testing. Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a familial arrhythmogenic syndrome characterized by abnormal ion channel function and sudden cardiac
Multiple myeloma is characterized by the malignant growth of immunoglobulin producing plasma cells, predominantly in the bone marrow. The effects of primary human mesenchymal stromal cells on the differentiation phenotype of multiple myeloma cells were studied by co-culture experiments. The incubation of multiple myeloma cells with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells resulted in significant reduction of the expression of the predominant plasma cell differentiation markers CD38 and CD138, and cell surface immunoglobulin light chain.
The mechanisms governing hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization are not fully understood. We report higher membrane type 1–MMP (MT1-MMP) and lower expression of the MT1-MMP inhibitor, reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), on isolated circulating human CD34+ progenitor cells compared with immature BM cells. The expression of MT1-MMP correlated with clinical mobilization of CD34+ cells in healthy donors and patients with lymphoid malignancies. Treatment with G-CSF further increased MT1-MMP and decreased RECK expression in human and murine hematopoietic cells in a PI3K/Akt-dependent manner, resulting in elevated MT1-MMP activity.
Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reside in the bone marrow and are known for their ability to differentiate along the mesenchymal lineage (fat,bone, and cartilage). Recent works have suggested the possibility that these cells are also capable of differentiating toward the neuroectodermal lineage. Using lentiviral gene delivery, we sought to reprogram the bone marrow–derived MSCs toward dopaminergic differentiation through delivery of LMX1a, which was reported to be a key player in dopaminergic differentiation in both developmental animal models and embryonic stem cells.
Because of their somatic cell origin, human induced pluripotent stem cells (HiPSCs) are assumed to carry a normal diploid genome, and adaptive chromosomal aberrations have not been fully evaluated.
Severe neutropenia and protracted thrombocytopenia remain serious clinical problems following cord blood transplantation (CBT) due to the paucity of stem and progenitor cells in the grafts. Administration of ex-vivo expanded megakaryocyte progenitor cells may facilitate platelet production. We propose a novel strategy to expand these rare cells ex-vivo, from a small portion of the cord blood (CB) unit, using fibronectin (FN), a major component of hematopoietic niches, combined with cytokines, including thrombopoietin and the hematopoietic stress-associated acetylcholinesterase readthrough peptide (ARP).
An intimate interplay exists between the bone and the immune system, which has been recently termed osteoimmunology. The activity of immune cells affects the intrinsic balance of bone mineralization and resorption carried out by the opposing actions of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The aim of this study was to determine the possible interaction between inflammatory-induced conditions and matrix metalloproteinases-2,-9 (MMP-2,-9) synthesis and secretion by bone marrow-derived osteoprogenitor cells during advanced stages of osteogenesis.
Biocompatible and osteoconductive cell–scaffold constructs comprise the first and most important step towards successful in vivo bone repair. This study reports on a new cell–scaffold construct composed of gelatin-based hydrogel and ceramic (CaCO3/β-TCP) particles loaded with human MSCs producing a tissue-like construct applied as a transplant for in vivo bone formation.
Genostem (acronym for “Adult mesenchymal stem cells engineering for connective tissue disorders. From the bench to the bed side”) has been an European consortium of 30 teams working together on human bone marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) biological properties and repair capacity. Part of Genostem activity has been dedicated to the study of basic issues on undifferentiated MSCs properties and on signalling pathways leading to the differentiation into 3 of the connective tissue lineages, osteoblastic, chondrocytic and tenocytic. We have evidenced that native bone marrow MSCs and stromal cells, forming the niche of hematopoietic stem cells, were the same cellular entity located abluminally from marrow sinus endothelial cells.
The identification and isolation of human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) offer new approaches for myocardial regeneration and repair. Still, the optimal source of human cardiac progenitor cells and the influence of patient characteristics on their number remain unclear. Using a novel method to isolate human cardiac progenitor cells, we aimed to define the optimal source and association between their number and patient characteristics.